Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH)

Women with lower AMH levels have a lower ovarian reserve than women with high AMH levels. AMH is currently being used by fertility specialists to help predict women who may respond poorly to fertility medications and therefore, are less likely to be successful with fertility treatments.

Antral Follicle Count

Follicles are the name given to the small ovarian cysts that contain eggs. At the beginning of a menstrual cycle, using ultrasound we can visualise and even measure these follicles in the ovary. This method is known as the antral follicle count. A normal follicle will be less than 9 or 10 mm in diameter.

Clomid Challenge Test

The clomid challenge test is an evaluation of female pituitary hormone levels. Clomid (clomiphene citrate) may increase the accuracy of finding women with decreased ovarian reserve.

Ovarian Volume Assessment

A woman has her peak number of eggs (oocytes) before she is born. All during a woman’s life, the eggs are constantly degenerating, resulting in a decrease in a woman’s fertility as she gets older. As the eggs are being lost, the ovaries become smaller. Using transvaginal ultrasound, the volume of each ovary can be calculated by measuring the length, width and depth.


Once you know the ovarian volume, ovarian reserve, ovarian volume, ovary size, decreased ovarian reserve, and time to menopause, reproductive age, you can estimate a woman’s “reproductive age”.

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