Cervical cancer screening, treatment & prevention

Cervical cancer begins in the uterine cervix, a lower part-of-body component that connects the upper vagina. The incidence of cervical cancer has led to decline in mortality and posed a threat to communal living. Common causes of cervical cancer are as follows:

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
  • Engaging more than a partner
  • Tobacco smoking habit
  • Consuming birth control pill
  • Early sexual contact
  • Family’s history of cervical cancer
Cervical cancer screening & guideline

Women, between age 21 and 66, are strongly encouraged to receive cervical cancer screening, diagnosis of current cervix health condition, determine the stage of cervix cancer, or regular cervical check-up. The following cervical cancer screening procedure includes:

  • CT scan – computed tomography scan (3D image) on cervix and abdomen
  • MRI scan – full lower-body diagnosis
  • PET scan


Prognostic value: Make an appointment with our accredited OBGYN specialist at United Medical clinic. Our doctors are qualified professionals in performing cervical cancer screening, examination, and surgical treatment (if need be) – Doctor’s profiles

**Note: Women who have completed hysterectomy need not be screened, but subtotal hysterectomy (cervix intact) should undergo screening in accordance to guidelines.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection

Human papillomavirus (herein refers to as HPV) infection may cause cervical dysplasia – abnormal cervical cell growth – that can lead to cancerous cell. Dysplasia of cervix can be detected early via the following cervical cancer screening tests:

  • Pap smear test – referred to as squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL)
  • Pelvic examination – changes in precancerous cell mobility in the cervix


Vaccination procedure: Book an appointment with our accredited O&G specialist at United Medical clinic. Our doctors are qualified professionals to advise on your personal cervix problems, evidently on our doctors’ profiles.

Common symptoms, signs & causes of cervical cancer

Cervical cancer may not raise “red flags” during early precancerous phases. You’ve to observe the following cervical cancer symptoms and signs:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding – sudden, heavy, or painful feeling
  • Increased vaginal discharge – colors, odor, or texture of release
  • Bleeding after completing menopause
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pelvic pain – sharp, mild, or irregular pain


Cervical screening test: Consult an accredited O&G specialist at United Medical center. Our doctors help you in detecting early symptoms and performing minimally-invasive treatments, shown on our doctors’ profiles.

What are the stages of cervical cancer?

Staging cancers is an imperative indicator for doctors in determining the most appropriate treatment or surgery plan. In general, cervical cancer has been classified into four phases:

  • Stage 0: Non-invasive cancer – cell abnormalies reside around the cervix’s façade
  • Stage I: Tumour detection – small amount of growth of tumour yet to spread across lymph node or distant site
  • Stage II: Uterus and cervix infection – cervical cytology screening for cancer spread beyond but not detected in pelvic pillars or lower part of vagina
  • Stage III: Tumour obstruction – cancerous cells grown beyond cervix, uterus, pelvic walls and lower part of vagina (may create obstruction to ureters)
  • Stage IV: Final phase – most advanced stage of cancerous cells spreading to other parts of body


Cervical cancer stage screening: Schedule an appointment with our accredited O&G specialist at United Medical clinic. Our doctors will build a personalized cervical-staging plan for you and observe your cervix progression, more information about our doctors’ profiles.

Treatment options for cervical cancer
  1. Surgery: Removal of early-stage tumour(s) is possible. Hysterectomy (extraction or removal of uterus), cone biopsy, trachelectomy (removal of upper vagina and cervix), pelvic exenteration, are surgeries for treating different stages of cervical cancer.
  2. Radiology therapy: External beam radiation (outside radiating source), brachytherapy (insertion of radioactive sources) are two common types of therapy.
  3. Chemotherapy: Recommended together with radiology (chemoradiation).
  4. Targeted therapy: To be advised by specialist.


Operation procedure: Arrange an appointment with our local O&G gynaecologist at United Medical center. Our doctors will introduce various treatment options for cervical cancer, learn more about our doctors here.

What are the procedures for minor surgical set-ups?

Pap smear test, extracted cells from cervix and vagina, produced “red flags” upon precancerous cell detection. Prevention of cancerous growth or spotting early-stage tumour is possible. Check the following routine examination to be conducted on a regular basis:

  • Colposcopy: a type of special magnifying device, not accessible to the naked eye, plus a mild vinegar-like solution being applied to the cervix. Biopsies of abnormal areas are taken for further evaluation and treatment option to be advised; laser vaporisation, cone biopsy with laser and LEEP, knife or diathermy
  • LEEP (Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure) & Cone Biospy: minimally-invasive surgery that involve removal of cylindrical or cone-shaped cervix piece (located by using a heated electrical loop wire, knife, or laser) – anaesthetic might be required


Minimally-invasive surgery procedure: Book an appointment with our local O&G gynaecologist at United Medical clinic. Our doctors are qualified professionals to advise on recommended treatments – check out our doctor’s profiles.

Planning Ahead
You may wish to prepare a list of questions to ask before seeing us so that you will not miss out anything important. Ask for the appointment on a day when you know you will not be having your period. Be sure to bring a list of all medications and supplements that you are taking.
Can I walk in for an appointment or service?
We want to make sure we cater enough time for your visit with our doctor. As such, we strongly advise that you make a prior appointment with our staff. Our specialist will then meet you on the allocated time for a detailed discussion. Please call or email us for an appointment.
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